Ptolemy was a cartographer and geography, and also worked in mathematics. Claudius Ptolemy (Koinē Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, romanized: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́os]; Latin: Claudius Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. AD 170) was a Greek who probably lived and worked in Alexandria, Egypt.He is famous for his work on astronomy and geography.Very little is known about his personal life. Ptolemy's institution of higher learning, the Museum, gave birth to the greatest advancements in science before the seventeenth century of our own era. The rays were sensitive, and conveyed information back to the observer's intellect about the distance and orientation of surfaces.  Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. " Not much positive evidence is known on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name (see above), although modern scholars have concluded that Abu Maʻshar's account is erroneous.  His astrological treatise, a work in four parts, is known by the Greek term Tetrabiblos, or the Latin equivalent Quadripartitum: "Four Books". Not much is known about Ptolemy's early life. Ptolemy combined the mathematical, philosophical and physiological traditions.  After criticizing the approaches of his predecessors, Ptolemy argued for basing musical intervals on mathematical ratios (in contrast to the followers of Aristoxenus and in agreement with the followers of Pythagoras), backed up by empirical observation (in contrast to the overly theoretical approach of the Pythagoreans). So should we assume that Ptolemy and Diophantus, Pappus and Hypatia were ethnically Greek, that their ancestors had come from Greece at some point in the past but had remained effectively isolated from the Egyptians? Several historians have made the deduction that this indicates that Ptolemy would have been a Roman citizen. Stückelberger, Alfred, and Gerd Graßhoff (eds). In 275–274 B.C., Ptolemy II drove back the Kushites and annexed the area, which was then developed as a sort of trade corridor between Egypt and the lands ruled by the Kushites, who had recentered at Meroë. 1843. Ptolemy I Soter I (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. The Ptolemies in Egypt provide us with an interesting dynasty fraught with all manner of intrigue. In the second part of the Geography, he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, (Philadelphus in Greek: “Brother-Loving”) (born 308 bce, Cos—died 246), king of Egypt (285–246 bce), second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty, who extended his power by skillful diplomacy, developed agriculture and commerce, and made Alexandria a leading centre of the arts and sciences.. Life. The first Ptolemy came to power after the death of Alexander the Great in Babylonia. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Ptolemy I Soter (/ ˈ t ɒ l əm i /; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaîos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC) was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy of Macedon founded the Ptolemaic Dynasty. H. E. Ross and G. M. Ross, "Did Ptolemy Understand the Moon Illusion? Epiphanius' Treatise on Weights and Measures - The Syriac Version, Move over, Lannisters: No one did incest and murder like the last pharaohs, "Morbid obesity and hypersomnolence in several members of an ancient royal family", "Familial proptosis and obesity in the Ptolemies", Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ptolemaic_dynasty&oldid=994411966, States and territories established in the 4th century BC, States and territories disestablished in the 1st century BC, 1st-millennium BC disestablishments in Egypt, 1st-century BC disestablishments in Greece, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox family with unknown parameters, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 16:12.  He also acknowledged ancient astronomer Hipparchus for having provided the elevation of the north celestial pole for a few cities.. Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in geography until the application of Galileo's Jovian moon method in the 18th century. ", A. I. Sabra, "Psychology Versus Mathematics: Ptolemy and Alhazen on the Moon Illusion", in E. Grant & J. E. Murdoch (eds. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred to express it as climata, the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc: the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as one goes from the equator to the polar circle. Throughout, he highlights the achievements that profoundly shaped both Egypt's history and that of the early Hellenistic world. Ptolemy I and the transformation of Egypt, 404-282 BCE Published: (2018) Rituals of war: the body and violence in Mesopotamia by: Bahrani, Zainab 1962- Published: (2008) Berggren, J. Lennart, and Alexander Jones. 2nd-century Greco-Egyptian writer and astronomer. Ptolemy XIV of Egypt appears in 1 issues View all The Story of Sex: A Graphic History Through the Ages. In Cl.  Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. This would indicate that he was descended from a Greek family living in Egypt and that he was a citizen of Rome, which would be as a result of a Roman emperor giving that 'reward' to one of Ptolemy… Thus explanations of a sort are provided for the astrological effects of the planets, based upon their combined effects of heating, cooling, moistening, and drying. This article explores the character(s) of Ptolemaic kingship in Egypt. This was one of the early statements of size-distance invariance as a cause of perceptual size and shape constancy, a view supported by the Stoics. Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. A collection of one hundred aphorisms about astrology called the Centiloquium, ascribed to Ptolemy, was widely reproduced and commented on by Arabic, Latin and Hebrew scholars, and often bound together in medieval manuscripts after the Tetrabiblos as a kind of summation. Of course, it was essential in such cases for the Egyptians to become "Hellenized", to adopt Greek habits and the Greek language.  Gerald Toomer, the translator of Ptolemy's Almagest into English, suggests that citizenship was probably granted to one of Ptolemy's ancestors by either the emperor Claudius or the emperor Nero. After the death of Ptolemy V Epiphanes the Dynasty becomes even more complicated. Claudius Ptolemy was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer who wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic and Western European science. The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou (Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid (Θηβᾱΐς). Ptolemy was one of the men who accompanied Alexander to the sacred Oracle at the Siwa Oasis in Egypt when the Macedonians liberated Egypt from the Persian Empire. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy the Savior), also known as Ptolemy Lagides, c. 367 BC – January 282 BC, was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and dynasty during the course of the Wars of the Diadochi. In it, Ptolemy writes about properties of sight (not light), including reflection, refraction, and colour. The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. Pfrommer, Michael; Towne-Markus, Elana (2001). The great irony, of course, is that his successor as Pharaoh had been with him the entire … Ptolemy wrote about how musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations and vice versa in Harmonics. When switching from 700 stadia per degree to 500, he (or Marinos) expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly (a point first realized by P. Gosselin in 1790), resulting in serious over-stretching of the Earth's east-west scale in degrees, though not distance. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Macedon who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Conflicts within their own family threatened their rule over Egypt. Ptolemy I and other early rulers of the dynasty were not married to their relatives, the childless marriage of siblings Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II being an exception.  They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark: "It is sometimes said that the very learned man who wrote the book of astrology also wrote the book of the Almagest. Ptolemy's astrological outlook was quite practical: he thought that astrology was like medicine, that is conjectural, because of the many variable factors to be taken into account: the race, country, and upbringing of a person affects an individual's personality as much as, if not more than, the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the precise moment of their birth, so Ptolemy saw astrology as something to be used in life but in no way relied on entirely. Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage, but this did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty's history. , Ptolemaeus (Πτολεμαῖος Ptolemaîos) is an ancient Greek personal name. Cleopatra was born in Alexandria in 69 BC to Ptolemy XII Auletes, who ruled Egypt from 80 to 58 BC and then again from 55 to 51 BC. ), Peerlings, R.H.J., Laurentius F., van den Bovenkamp J.,(2017), Peerlings, R.H.J., Laurentius F., van den Bovenkamp J.,(2018). See also Ancient Greek units of measurement and History of geodesy. SeventeenthDynasty, (1500–1100 BCE)Kidinuid dynastyIgehalkid dynastyUntash-Napirisha, Twenty-first Dynasty of EgyptSmendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II, Twenty-third Dynasty of EgyptHarsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini Nobbe, C. F. A., ed. He formed a state whose cultural importance remained unparalleled until the rise of Rome.  The Tetrabiblos is an extensive and continually reprinted treatise on the ancient principles of horoscopic astrology. Ptolemy was creator of the most eduring of the Hellenistic kingdoms. He was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. It was the wealthiest, however, and for much of the next 300 years the most powerful politically and culturally, and it was the last to fall directly under Roman dominion. (Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'.) Unlike their previous rulers under the Achaemenid Empire, they usually lived in Egypt. His Optics is a work that survives only in a poor Arabic translation and in about twenty manuscripts of a Latin version of the Arabic, which was translated by Eugenius of Palermo (c. 1154). Egypt is the wealthiest country in the world and Sostratos once talks about how Ptolemy is the best of the warlords because he doesn't feel the need to control Alexander's entire empire, just a part of it, which would make peaceful coexistence possible. Because of its reputation, it was widely sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was originally entitled the Mathematical Treatise (Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις) and then known as The Great Treatise (Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις). Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. , The name Claudius is a Roman name, belonging to the gens Claudia; the peculiar multipart form of the whole name Claudius Ptolemaeus is a Roman custom, characteristic of Roman citizens. He presented his own divisions of the tetrachord and the octave, which he derived with the help of a monochord. It is highly probable that these were the same stadion, since Ptolemy switched from the former scale to the latter between the Syntaxis and the Geography, and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly. Natürlich ist jeder Ptolemy xiv of egypt unmittelbar bei Amazon.de auf Lager und gleich lieferbar. , The work is also important for the early history of perception. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Hellenistic Dynasties > Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt.  It occurs once in Greek mythology and is of Homeric form. He encouraged the erection of the Pharos Lighthouse, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world; and created a library which eventually housed the greatest known collection of books, until relatively recent times. Ptolemy himself tells the traders that he only … He agreed (Geography 1.4) that longitude was best determined by simultaneous observation of lunar eclipses, yet he was so out of touch with the scientists of his day that he knew of no such data more recent than 500 years before (Arbela eclipse). In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter "Saviour". Ptolemy lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt under the rule of the Roman Empire, had a Latin name (which several historians have taken to imply he was also a Roman citizen), cited Greek philosophers, and used Babylonian observations and Babylonian lunar theory. Ptolemaei ... IIII De astrorum judiciis, Studien über Claudius Ptolemaeus. He held an extramission-intromission theory of vision: the rays (or flux) from the eye formed a cone, the vertex being within the eye, and the base defining the visual field.  This means that information contained in different parts of the Geography is likely to be of different dates. The great popularity that the Tetrabiblos did possess might be attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art of astrology, and as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as a manual. He offered an obscure explanation of the sun or moon illusion (the enlarged apparent size on the horizon) based on the difficulty of looking upwards.. In continuation of the tradition established by previous Egyptian dynasties, the Ptolemies engaged in inbreeding including sibling marriage, with many of the pharaohs being married to their siblings and often co-ruling with them. It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2–7 are cumulative texts – texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy. As with the model of the Solar System in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. As well as Ptolemy XI for the murder of his wife, Berenice. AbydosDynasty Ptolemy's institution of higher … Ptolemy was also an avid skygazer. Ptolemy, was one of Alexander the Great's generals and deputies. Ptolemy lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt under the rule of the Roman Empire, had a Latin name (which several historians have taken to imply he was also a Roman citizen), cited Greek philosophers, and used Babylonian observations and Babylonian lunar theory. However, Pythagoras believed that the mathematics of music should be based on the specific ratio of 3:2, whereas Ptolemy merely believed that it should just generally involve tetrachords and octaves. Claudius Ptolemy (/ˈtɒləmi/; Koinē Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́os]; Latin: Claudius Ptolemaeus; c. 100 – c. 170 AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, geographer and astrologer who wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic and Western European science. The identity and date of the actual author of the work, referred to now as Pseudo-Ptolemy, remains the subject of conjecture. This situation was made worse by the violent tendencies of the Alexandrian mob. "Ptolemy". Ptolemy ruled Egypt until he died of natural causes in his early eighties.  He might have been a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. The Land of Egypt with Its (Greek) Pharaohs An edition printed at Ulm in 1482, including woodcut maps, was the first one printed north of the Alps. The dissolution of Alexander’s empire was brought to a … The correct answer is not known. This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 13:40. Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy’s descendants until the death of Cleopatra VII on August 12, 30 bce.  He died in Alexandria around 168.  Ptolemy offered explanations for many phenomena concerning illumination and colour, size, shape, movement and binocular vision. His generals, including Ptolemy, divided the empire between each other.  Ptolemy's astronomical interests also appeared in a discussion of the "music of the spheres". 2006. Ptolemy IV Philopator, (Greek: “Loving His Father”) (born c. 238 bce —died 205 bce), Macedonian king of Egypt (reigned 221–205 bc), under whose feeble rule, heavily influenced by favourites, much of Ptolemaic Syria was lost and native uprisings began to disturb the internal stability of Egypt.. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatiká (Ἀποτελεσματικά) but more commonly known as the Tetrábiblos from the Koine Greek (Τετράβιβλος) meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum.  The Almagest was preserved, like most of extant Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name). The statement by Theodore Meliteniotes that he was born in Ptolemais Hermiou (in Upper Egypt) could be correct, but it is late (ca. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (c. 285 BCE – 246 BCE) laid the foundation of Ptolemaic economic policies by introducing new revenue and property laws and new taxes. Alexander Jones, "The Adaptation of Babylonian Methods in Greek Numerical Astronomy", in. He estimated the Sun was at an average distance of 1,210 Earth radii, while the radius of the sphere of the fixed stars was 20,000 times the radius of the Earth. He also divided illusions into those caused by physical or optical factors and those caused by judgmental factors. (Until Stückelberger (2006), this was the most recent edition of the complete Greek text. The most famous Ptolemaic pharaoh, Cleopatra VII, was at different times married to and reigning with two of her brothers (Ptolemy XIII until 47 BC and then Ptolemy XIV until 44 BC), and their parents were likely siblings or possibly cousins as well. The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie und Astrologie, "Cartographic Images of the World on the Eve of the Discoveries", "Κλαυδιου Πτολεμιου: Γεωγραφικῆς Ύφηγήσεως (Geographie)", "Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy): Representation, Understanding, and Mathematical Labeling of the Spherical Earth", Online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries, Codex Vaticanus graecus 1291 (Vat.gr.1291) in Vatican Digital Library, Ancient Greek and Hellenistic mathematics, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ptolemy&oldid=996090378, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Koinē Greek-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Articles with disputed statements from March 2018, Articles with Greek-language sources (el), Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 2000.  All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, while queens regnant were all called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The north celestial pole is the point in the sky lying at the common centre of the circles which the stars appear to people in the northern hemisphere to trace out during the course of a, H. W. Ross and C. Plug, "The History of Size Constancy and Size Illusions", in V. Walsh & J. Kulikowski (eds.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. In the Phaseis (Risings of the Fixed Stars), Ptolemy gave a parapegma, a star calendar or almanac, based on the appearances and disappearances of stars over the course of the solar year. His Harmonics never had the influence of his Almagest or Planetary Hypotheses, but a part of it (Book III) did encourage Kepler in his own musings on the harmony of the world (Kepler, Harmonice Mundi, Appendix to Book V). He was the son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III. In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty likely suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis, obesity and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently.. It contains the earliest surviving table of refraction from air to water, for which the values (with the exception of the 60° angle of incidence), although historically praised as experimentally derived, appear to have been obtained from an arithmetic progression. Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy’s descendants until the death of Cleopatra VII on August 12, 30 bce. Much of the content of the Tetrabiblos was collected from earlier sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be rationalized. 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